Singapore continues to present opportunities for women in science and engineering, and they are making up a growing proportion of those working in such fields.

Nearly three in 10 research scientists and engineers here in 2014 were women, according to the latest statistics from the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*Star), which is good news considering the gender gap worldwide in science.

The participation rate here, at 29 per cent, has climbed steadily from 23.5 per cent in 2004 and 26.5 per cent five years later.

A total of 9,516 female university graduates, not including those doing full-time postgraduate research, were working in the public and private sectors in 2014 - more than double the 4,438 seen in 2004.

Female leaders in the field here, such as Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology executive director Jackie Ying, who was named one of the 100 Chemical Engineers of the Modern Era, could be inspiring more young women to take the plunge.

The growth could also be due to the increasing variety of courses and industries within science and engineering, and government initiatives to promote science, technology, engineering and mathematics, say experts. Said Mr Foo See Yang, vice-president and country general manager of Kelly Services Singapore: "Given the recent awareness building around science and engineering job and career opportunities available, more graduates are taking up jobs in these industries."

Last year, the recruitment firm placed an equal number of female and male scientists and engineers.

More women could also be entering these fields rather than switching to another after graduation. At the National University of Singapore, about four in 10 students graduating from those courses are women.

Over at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), the same ratio is seen at the undergraduate level, though it falls to three in 10 at the postgraduate level. But there has been an almost threefold increase in the number of women taking up postgraduate degrees in science since 2010, an NTU spokesman said.

Research scientists and engineers The Straits Times spoke to hope more women will join their ranks as technologies become more exciting and work environments improve.

Dr Yvonne Koh, 32, a biomedical scientist who helped develop genetic test kits for a disease called fragile X syndrome, said many fresh science graduates tend to be unaware of the career options they have, or feel the remuneration is not enough.

"We should remind people that a technical degree can provide a lot more possibilities," said the A*Star scholar, who hopes to use her experience in a start-up to help other scientists learn to be entrepreneurs.

A*Star Graduate Academy's executive director, Professor Alfred Huan, said that A*Star has expanded its scholarship schemes and outreach efforts over the years. It also introduced a programme to provide research attachments for Singaporean students pursuing undergraduate or master's degrees abroad.

In the engineering sector, Singapore is facing a manpower shortage, with high levels of attrition once students graduate.

More can be done to showcase the growing range of design work engineers can be involved in, said MP Lee Bee Wah, an engineer by training. More support for women and mothers, such as offering them a role change if their pregnancy is difficult, could also help raise retention rates, she added.

Dr Dawn Tan, an assistant professor at the Singapore University of Technology and Design, said holding workshops in primary schools could get more young women interested in engineering .

Dr Tan, 33, whose work on using photons - particles of light - has twice been featured on the cover of the Laser & Photonics Reviews journal, said she enjoys "being able to compete alongside some of the best brains in the world".

Mr Andrew Tan, chief executive of civil engineering and building firm BBR Holdings, noted that more women engineers have joined his company in recent years, and while some prefer to work on-site, others do design work in the office.

"Hopefully, new technologies will raise the profile of the sector and improve the work environment, and attract more engineers, whether women or men," he said.